The Medium is the Message: Firearm Caliber as a Determinant of Death from Assault

Tims is the second report of a research project on violent assault in Chicago. The first, a study of fatal and nonfatal assaults with knives and guns, produced evidence to support three conclusions:

(1) Most homicide is not the result of a single-minded intention to kill at any cost.

(2) Many nonfatal attacks with knives and guns are apparently indistinguishable in motive, intent and dangerousness from many fatal attacks. Indeed, the overlap between fatal and nonfatal assaults with knives and guns is much more impressive than any differences that were noted.

(3) Weapon dangerousness, independent of any other factors, has a substantial impact on the death rate from attack.' This paper first reports on an attempt to carry the earlier research one step further by comparing low-caliber with high-caliber firearms attacks, and then suggests some ways in which the data developed in the two studies of fatal and nonfatal attacks might interest criminologists and criminal law scholars.

I. THE STUDY
A. Plan and Basic Data

Read More!

A Study of Mental Health Problems in Criminals in Terms of Depression, Anxiety and Stress

Abstract

Offenders resides in prison faces many problems. Isolation from the families, overcrowding in prison, guilt, and stigmatization are main causes of deterioration in mental health of prisoners. Present study intends to assess mental health problem in two groups of convicted criminals: murderers and rapists in terms of depression anxiety and stress. Based on purposive sampling technique, 72 convicted criminals were selected from Birsa Munda Central Jail Hotwar, Ranchi, India. Both the groups of criminals were matched on various socio-demographic parameters such as: gender, age, education, religion, marital status, residence and occupation. All participants were assessed on Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Obtained responses were scored by using standard scoring procedures and subsequently statistically analyzed by using Chi-square test. In present study rapists group have shown significant difference on scale of depression in comparison to murderer’s group. Whereas there were no significant differences found between both the groups on level of anxiety and stress. Mental health problems were found...

Read More!

Coercive Control in Long Term Sex Trafficking Relationships: Using Exhaustion to Control Victims

Abstract

The importance of coercive control tactics in maintaining women in commercial sex has been well-documented. Less known is how these tactics manifest in long-term relationships and how victims cope or react to establish patterns of control. The current study measured the temporal patterning of coercive control in long term sex trafficking relationships via wiretapped phone conversations between pimps and sex trafficked workers. In addition, victim responses of compliance versus resistance to coercive control tactics were measured. 68 phone calls over four months were transcribed and coded between two pimps and four women working in commercial sex. The findings indicate that coercion was pervasive and extended to all domains of the women’s lives. As predicted, tactics of microregulation and surveillance dominated, with occasional instances of intimidation and aggression. As further predicted, higher levels of intimidation by the trafficker were correlated with higher instances of resistance and higher levels of surveillance and microregulation were correlated with higher levels of compliance. While women occasionally resisted, the power imbalance did not shift over time, with the pimps continuing to maintain control in all aspects of the women’s lives. The implications of the research are far-reaching as they confirm in real-time the temporal patterns of coercive control as marked by long periods of compliance, or “exhaustion phases,” interspersed with rarer instances of aggressive, coercive tactics that elicit resistance in victims.

Read More!

Runaway Youth: A Research Brief

How Running Away is Defined

According to the U.S. Department of Justice, a child who leaves home without permission or does not return home when expected and stays away overnight is considered a runaway. Another group of young people the Department of Justice is concerned about are children who are forced to leave or prevented from returning home by an adult. Although these young people leave home under different circumstances, their experiences while away from home are often similar to those of runaways. In fact, research suggests that the distinction between these two groups maybe artificial, as many young people who have run away from home also report having been thrown out by caregivers at other points in time.

Why this Issue Matters

The actual number of youth who run away from home, as well as those who are thrown out of their homes, each year is unknown. However, the most recent estimate, based on findings from the Second National Incidence Study of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children

Read More!

Assessment On The Impact Of Family Dynamics On The Runaway Problem Among Teenagers

EKICI, SIDDIK, An Assessment on the Impact of Family Dynamics on Runaway Problem Among Teenagers.

Master of Science (Criminal Justice), August 2005, 108 pp. references, 67 titles.

Although Turkey is a country with strong social cohesion, figures of runaway children in Turkey are increasing dramatically. This research focused on the factors that cause children to run away and on interaction programs to intervene and/or prevent this problem. Until recently, Turkish family life was able to avoid such problems, but with the effect of westernization and social mobility in Turkey, the basic family structure has become more like the family structure in the western countries.

Studies reveal that runaway episodes happen in all families regardless of such factors as economic, race, or geographic situations. Teenagers run away for several reasons; however, early intervention is highly suggested by studies to mitigate the problem. Although, parent-child conflict plays a significant role as a reason for youth leaving home, on the other hand family interaction still remains the best alternative to the problem.

Read More!

Runaway Juvenile Crime?: The Context of Juvenile Arrests in America

Introduction and Analysis

On a Saturday night back in 1984, Kathy Robbins, a 15-year-old girl from Glenn County, California, was arrested for being in her town after curfew. She was taken in hand-cuffs to a 54-year-old cell in Glenn County’s adult jail. Four days after she was arrested, at a juvenile court hearing, a judge refused to release her to a juvenile detention facility. On that day, still isolated and alone in an adult jail cell, Kathy Robbins twisted a bed sheet around her neck, and hanged herself from the rail of the top bunk bed.

Robbins was one of six teenagers who took their lives in California jails between 1979 and 1984. The controversy surrounding her suicide culminated in the passage of a California law in 1987 which forbade the detention of teenagers in the same jails as adults. Juvenile advocates at the time regarded the California legislation as “the most progressive law in the U.S. on this issue.”3 With the help of this California law and the 1973

Read More!

Homicides of Children and Youth

Murders of children and youth, the ultimate form of juvenile victimization, have received a great deal of deserved publicity in recent years.1 Yet, while images of Polly Klaas and student victims at Columbine High School are vivid in the public’s mind, statistics on juvenile murder victims are not. Substantial misunderstandings exist about the magnitude of and trends in juvenile homicide and the types of children at risk of becoming victims of different types of homicide.

This Bulletin gives a brief statistical portrait of various facets of child and youth homicide victimization in the United States. It draws heavily on homicide data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI’s) Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs), which are part of the Bureau’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program; however, it also relies on a variety of other studies and statistical sources. Highlights of the findings presented in this Bulletin include the following:

◆ In 1999, about 1,800 juveniles (a rate of 2.6 per 100,000) were victims of homicide in the United States.

Read More!

High-Power Compact Microwave Source for Vehicle Immobilization, Final Report

Abstract

Eureka Aerospace has developed a compact single frequency high-power electromagnetic system (HPEMS) for remotely immobilizing vehicles using microwave energy to disable/damage vehicle’s electronic control module/microprocessor which controls engine’s vital functions. The HPEMS consist of rapid charging power supply, capable of delivering of up to 100 pulses per second to the 16-stage Marx generator having erected voltage of 640 kV, whose output consist of 100 Joule, 50 ns long DC pulses. The Marx generator “feeds” the microwave oscillator, consisting of two-transmission line flat-plate Blumlein architecture converting DC pulses into RF-modulated waveform at 350 MHz, using a multiple spark-gap switch configuration. The extension of Blumlein and ground plates into flare horn geometry offers a unique oscillator-high-gain antenna configuration yielding focusing of microwave energy along the focal axis of the antenna. The measured electric field strength at the 30 ft range is approximately 60 kV/m, which corresponds to the power density of 477 W/cm . The limited laboratory test successfully demonstrated the system’s capability of “killing” of the...

Read More!

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA : v, INGMAR GUANDIQUE :

SUPERIOR COURT FOR THE, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA :

v,

GUANDIQUE :

NOTICE OF EXPERT TESTIMONY

Ingmar Guandique, through counsel, hereby provides additional notification pursuant to Rule 16(b)(1)(C) of the Superior Court Rules of Criminal Procedure that he intends to call Dr. Jennifer Dysart to testify as an expert at trial. In addition to the Notice previously supplied, including the Notice included in prior filings and during oral arguments, Mr. Guandique makes the following disclosures with respect to Dr. Dysart’s testimony and related research in the field. !

THE ACCURACY OF EYEWITNESS IDENTIFICATIONS

Archival Studies Show that Mistaken Identification is the Primary Cause of Erroneous Convictions. Several legal scholars, beginning with Borchard (1932), have studied the causes of mistaken identification in over 1,000 criminal cases (see also Brandon & Davies, 1973; Frank & Frank, 1957; Huff, 1987; Huff. Rattner & Sagarin, 1986). Huff (1987) readily concludes, on the basis of studying the 500 cases of erroneous conviction that he identified,...

Read More!

Substance Abuse & Mental Health Toolkit

INTRODUCTION

Stress, depression, anxiety, chemical dependency, substance abuse, and other mental health conditions and impairments among law students are problems that continue to spark a national dialogue among faculty, administrators, and students. While students enter law school suffering from clinical stress and depression at a rate that mirrors the national average, the rate sharply increases during the first year of law school. Through the duration of their legal education, the rates of law students grappling with substance abuse and mental health problems increase dramatically. If unrecognized and untreated, these issues can carry into their professional careers.

Consider the following from the 2014 Survey of Law Student Well-Being:
- 89.6% of respondents have had a drink of alcohol in the last 30 days.
- 21.6% reported binge drinking at least twice in the past two weeks.
- 20.4% have thought seriously about suicide sometime in their life.
- 6.3% have thought seriously about suicide in the last 12 months.

Read More!

History Of Child Psychiatry

How soon can a child go mad?” asked Henry Maudsley in his 1895 textbook The Pathology of Mind, “Obviously not before it has got some mind to go wrong, and then only in proportion to the quantity and quality of mind which it has”, alluding to the widespread belief, even at the end of the 19th century, that children’s minds were not developed and stable enough to be able to show much psychopathology.

The history of child psychiatry—a term that can mean a collection of services, a body of knowledge, and a profession is inextricably linked to the history of childhood; recognising childhood as a distinct period of development is a prerequisite to acknowledging child psychiatry as a discipline (a full chapter, J.9, is dedicated to the history of childhood in this book). Thus, the history of child psychiatry is interlocked with our understanding of development, child-rearing practices, the place of children in society, and with non-medical fields such as juvenile justice and education. For example, some...

Read More!

Federal Question, 28 USCA § 1331

CASES ARISING UNDER CONSTITUTION OF UNITED STATES
---- Substantial constitutional issue, relationship between claim and constitutional issue, cases arising under constitution of United States
Medicare provider had no right to judicial review of reimbursement decision made by provider appeals committee that was established by the fiscal intermediary where the provider did not present a substantial constitutional claim and where it did not question the legality of regulations established by the intermediary or by the Government but only challenged the methods and decision of its own intermediary. U.S. v. Bellevue Hospital, Inc., D.C.Mass.1979, 479 F.Supp. 780. Health 556(1)

CASES ARISING UNDER LAWS OF UNITED STATES
---- Substantial question, relationship between federal law and claim, cases arising under laws of United States Determination of non-profit environmental organization's removed breach of fiduciary duty claim against its sponsor, brought under District of Columbia law, which alleged sponsor was entrusted to manage money received from United States Forest Service (USFS) belonging to the non-profit, and that fiscal sponsorships, by their nature, were relationships

Read More!

Public and Private Applications of Video Surveillance and Biometric Technologies

TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND EXPANDINGUSE

In 1997, the California Research Bureau (CRB) examined the potential of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) technology to improve public safety through remote surveillance.

Businesses such as banks were early adopters of CCTV for crime detection and prevention purposes. Our review found that an increasing number of cities, schools and residential districts were deploying CCTV systems. Shortly thereafter, many schools installed CCTV systems in response to violent outbreaks such as at Columbine High School. Now new CCTV technological features, and an urgent need for enhanced public security following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, are leading to a rapidly expanding use of CCTV and a related technology, biometrics. There appears to be considerable public support for this expansion. A Business Weeksurvey conducted a week after the September 11 terrorist attack found that 63 percent of the adults surveyed were in favor of expanded camera surveillance on streets and in public places, and 86 percent were in favor of using facial recognition...

Read More!

Serial Murder Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives for Investigators

I. Introduction

Serial murder is neither a new phenomenon, nor is it uniquely American. Dating back to ancient times, serial murderers have been chronicled around the world. In 19th century Europe, Dr. Richard von Krafft-Ebing conducted some of the first documented research on violent, sexual offenders and the crimes they committed. Best known for his 1886 textbook Psychopathia Sexualis, Dr. Kraft-Ebing described numerous case studies of sexual homicide, serial murder, and other areas of sexual proclivity. Serial murder is a relatively rare event, estimated to comprise less than one percent of all murders committed in any given year. However, there is a macabre interest in the topic that far exceeds its scope and has generated countless articles, books, and movies. This broad-based public fascination began in the late 1880s, after a series of unsolved prostitute murders occurred in the Whitechapel area of London. These murders were committed by an unknown individual who named himself “Jack the Ripper” and sent letters to the police claiming to be the killer....

Read More!

Restorative Arts II Definitions – Identifying Facial Markings

I. Definitions
A. Bilateral Comparison- This is the study of two sides of the face or feature to note similarities & differences; features can be similar but never identical
B. Bilateral Symmetry- The study of the similarities of the face or feature
C. Bilateral Asymmetry- The study of the differences of the face or feature

i.e. eyes & eyebrows; cheeks; sides of the nose; jaw-line; ears;

Anterior Nares
II. Identifying Facial Markings
A. Classification
1. Natural- Markings that are found on the face at birth
2. Acquired- Markings which occur with age related primarily with the orbital & oral cavities
B. NINE (9) NATURAL FACIAL MARKINGS
1. Philtrum (Superior Labial Groove) – Vertical groove found on the midline of the upper white lip; Has it’s greatest depth & width just above the middle area of the upper red lip (Cupid’s Bow);...

Read More!

Organizational Learning in Terrorist Groups and Its Implications for Combating Terrorism

If a terrorist group lacks the ability to learn, its effectiveness in achieving its goals will largely be determined by chance the chance that its members already have the necessary skills to carry out operations and support activities; the chance that its current tactics are effective against desirable targets and against current antiterrorism measures; and the chance that shifts made by the group will prove to be beneficial. Similarly, in a dynamic environment, a terrorist organization that cannot learn will not be able to effectively adapt to new developments in intelligence gathering and law enforcement. But when a terrorist group can learn—and learn well it can act systematically to fulfill its needs, strengthen its capabilities, and advance its strategic agenda. The ability to learn allows a terrorist group to purposefully adapt to ever-evolving circumstances by

• Developing, improving, and employing new weapons or tactics that can enable it to change its capabilities over time
• Improving its members’ skills in applying current weapons or tactics...

Read More!

Trends in Outside Support for Insurgent Movements

The most useful forms of outside support for an insurgent movement include safe havens, financial support, political backing, and direct military assistance. Because states are able to provide all of these types of assistance, their support has had a profound impact on the effectiveness of many rebel movements since the end of the Cold War. However, state support is no longer the only, or indeed necessarily the most important, game in town. Diasporas have played a particularly important role in sustaining several strong insurgencies. More rarely, refugees, guerrilla groups, or other types of non-state supporters play a significant role in creating or sustaining an insurgency, offering fighters, training, or other forms of assistance. This report assesses post-Cold War trends in external support for insurgent movements. It describes the frequency that states, diasporas, refugees, and other non-state actors back guerrilla movements. It also assesses the motivations of these actors and which types of support matter most. This book concludes by assessing the implications for analysts of insurgent movements.

Additional Resource: Trends in Outside Support for Insurgent Movements

Read More!